1. Brassil B, Mores CR, Wolfe AJ, Putonti C. 2020. Characterization and Isolation of Temperate Streptococcus anginosus phages from the Urinary Tract. Journal of General Virology. Apr 21. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001407. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:32310742
  2. Hilt EE, Putonti C, Thomas-White K, Lewis AL, Visick KL, Gilbert NM, Wolfe AJ. Aerococcus urinae isolated from women with lower urinary tract symptoms: in vitro aggregation and genome analysis. J Bacteriol. 2020 Apr 13. pii: JB.00170-20. doi: 10.1128/JB.00170-20. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:32284319
  3. Jacobs KM, Price TK, Thomas-White K, Halverson T, Davies A, Myers DL, Wolfe AJ. Cultivable Bacteria in Urine of Women With Interstitial Cystitis: (Not) What We Expected. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2020 Apr 6. doi: 10.1097/SPV.0000000000000854. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:32265402
  4. Penckofer S, Limeira R, Joyce C, Grzesiak M, Thomas-White K, Wolfe AJ. Characteristics of the microbiota in the urine of women with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2020 Mar 3:107561. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2020.107561. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:32184058
  5. Chen YB, Hochstedler B, Pham TT, Acevedo Alvarez M, Mueller ER, Wolfe AJ. The Urethral Microbiota - A Missing Link in the Female Urinary Microbiota. J Urol. 2020 Mar 2:101097JU0000000000000910. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000000910. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:32118507
  6. Penckofer S, Limeira R, Joyce C, Grzesiak M, Thomas-White K, Wolfe A. Characteristics of the Microbiota in the Urine of Women with Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. In Press.
  7. Miller-Ensminger T, Mormando R, Maskeri L, Shapiro JW, Wolfe AJ, Putonti C. Introducing Lu-1, a Novel Lactobacillus jensenii Phage Abundant in the Urogenital Tract. PLoS One. 2020 Jun 11;15(6):e0234159. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234159. eCollection 2020.PMID: 32525961
  8. Price TK, Lin H, Gao X, Thomas-White KJ, Hilt EE, Mueller ER, Wolfe AJ, Dong Q, Brubaker L. Bladder Bacterial Diversity Differs In Continent and Incontinent Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May 4:S0002-9378(20)30512-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.04.033. Highlighted in Urotoday’s Beyond the Abstract
  9. Price TK, Wolff B, Halverson T, Limeira R, Brubaker L, Dong Q, Mueller ER, Wolfe AJ. Temporal Dynamics of the Adult Female Lower Urinary Tract Microbiota. mBio. 2020 Apr 21;11(2):e00475-20. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00475-20.PMID: 32317321 
  10. Price TK, Hilt EE, Thomas-White K, Mueller ER, Wolfe AJ, Brubaker L. The urobiome of continent adult women: a cross-sectional studyBJOG. 2020;127(2):193-201. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.15920



  1. Dornbier, R.A., Bajic, P., Van Kuiken, M., Jardaneh, A., Lin, H., Gao, X., Knudsen, B., Dong, Q., Wolfe, A.J., Schwaderer, A.L. 2019. The microbiome of calcium-based urinary stones. Urolithiasis. 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.1007/s00240-019-01146-w. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31240349
  2. Karstens, L., Asquith, M., Davin, S., Fair, D., Gregory, W.T., Wolfe, A.J., Braun, J., McWeeney, S. 2019. Controlling for Contaminants in Low-Biomass 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Experiments. mSystems. 2019 Jun 4;4(4). pii: e00290-19. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00290-19. PMID:31164452
  3. Bajic, P., Dornbier, R.A., Doshi, C.P., Wolfe, A.J., Farooq, A.V., Bresler, L. 2019.  Implications of the Genitourinary Microbiota in Prostatic Disease. Curr Urol Rep. 2019. May 18;20(7):34. doi: 10.1007/s11934-019-0904-6. Review.PMID:31104156
  4. Garretto, A., Miller-Ensminger, T., Wolfe, A.J., Putonti, C. 2019Bacteriophages of the lower urinary tract. Nat Rev Urol. 2019 May 9. doi: 10.1038/s41585-019-0192-4. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID: 31073244
  5. Bresler, L., Price, T.K., Hilt, E.E., Joyce, C., Fitzgerald, C.M., Wolfe, A.J. 2019. Female lower urinary tract microbiota do not associate with IC/PBS symptoms: a case-controlled study. Int Urogynecol J. 2019 Apr 16.  doi: 10.1007/s00192-019-03942-9. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30993388
  6. Shannon, M.B., Limeira, R., Johansen, D., Gao, X., Lin, H., Dong, Q., Wolfe, A.J., Mueller, E.R. 2019. Bladder urinary oxygen tension is correlated with urinary microbiota composition. Int Urogynecol J. 2019 Mar 27. Doi: 10.1007/s00192-019-03931-y. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30918980
  7. Southworth, E., Hochstedler, B., Price, T.K., Joyce, C., Wolfe, A.J., Mueller, E.R. 2019. A Cross-sectional Pilot Cohort Study Comparing Standard Urine Collection to the Peezy Midstream Device for Research Studies Involving Women. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2019 Mar/Apr;25(2):e28e33doi:10.1097/SPV.0000000000000693.PMID:3080742
  8. Bajic, P., Wolfe, A.J., Gupta, G.N. 2019. Old instillations and new implications for bladder cancer: the urinary microbiome and intravesical BCG. BJU Int. 2019 Jan 21. doi: 10.1111/bju.14683. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30663202 
  9. Bajic, P., Wolfe, A.J., Gupta, G.N. 2019. The Urinary Microbiome: Implications in Bladder Cancer Pathogenesis and Therapeutics. 2019 Jan 4. pii: S0090-4295(19)30006-8. doi: 10.1016/ j.urology. 2018.12.034. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30615894
  10. Wolfe, A.J., Brubaker, L. 2019. Urobiome updates: advances in urinary microbiome research. Nat Rev Urol. 2018 Dec 3. doi: 10.1038/s41585-018-0127-5. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30510275
  11. Christensen DG, Xie X, Basisty N, Byrnes J, McSweeney S, Schilling B, Wolfe AJ. 2019. Posttranslational Protein Acetylation: An elegant Mechanism for Bacteria to Dynamically Regulate Metabolic Functions. Front Microbiol. 2019 Jul 12;10:1604. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01604. eCollection 2019. PMC6640162.
  12. Christensen DG, Baumgartner JT, Xie X, Jew KM, Basisty N, Schilling B, Kuhn ML, Wolfe AJ. 2019. Mechanisms, Detection, and Relevance of Protein Acetylation in Prokaryotes. MBio. 2019 Apr 9;10(2). pii: e02708-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02708-18. PMC6456759.
  13. Dornbier R, Bajic P, Wolfe AJ, Schwaderer A. 2019. The Role of Bacteria in Non-infection Stone Formation. In The Role of Bacteria in Urology. BH Chew and D Lange (ed) Springer.
  14. Wolff BJ, Price TK, Joyce CJ, Wolfe AJ, Mueller ER. 2019. Oral probiotics and the female urinary microbiome: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Int Urol Nephrol. Dec;51(12):2149-2159. doi: 10.1007/s11255-019-02282-3. Epub 2019 Sep 18. PMID:31535332
  15. Jung CE, Chopyk J, Shin JH, Lukacz ES, Brubaker L, Schwanemann LK, Knight R, Wolfe AJ, Pride DT. 2019. Benchmarking urine storage and collection conditions for evaluating the female urinary microbiome. Sci Rep. 2019 Sep 16;9(1):13409. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49823-5. PMID:31527753


  1. Abelson, B., Sun, D., Que, L., Nebel, R.A., Baker, D., Popiel, P., Amundsen, C.L., Chai, T., Close, C., DiSanto, M., Fraser, M.O., Kielb, S.J., Kuchel, G., Mueller, E.R., Palmer, M.H., Parker-Autry, C., Wolfe, A.J., Damaser M.S. 2018. Sex differences in lower urinary tract biology and physiology.  Biol Sex Differ. 2018 Oct 22;9(1):45. doi: 10.1186/s13293-018-0204-8. Review. PMID:30343668
  2. Thomas-White, K.J., Gao, X., Lin, H., Fok, C.S., Ghanayem, K., Mueller, E.R., Dong, Q., Brubaker, L., Wolfe, A.J. 2018.  Urinary microbes and postoperative urinary tract infection risk in urogynecologic surgical patients. Int Urogynecol J. 2018 Dec;29(12):1797-1805. doi: 10.1007/s00192-018-3767-3. Epub 2018 Sep 28.PMID:30267143 
  3. Bajic, P., Van Kuiken, M.E., Burge, B.K., Kirshenbaum, E.J., Joyce, C.J., Wolfe A.J., Branch J.D., Bresler L., Farooq A.V. 2018.  Male Bladder Microbiome Relates to Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. Eur Urol Focus. 2018 Aug 21. pii: S2405-4569(18)30220-7. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2018.08.001. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30143471
  4. Fok, C.S., Gao, X., Lin, H., Thomas-White, K.J., Mueller, E.R., Wolfe, A.J., Dong, Q., Brubaker, L. 2018.  Urinary symptoms are associated with certain urinary microbes in urogynecologic surgical patients. Int Urogynecol J. 2018 Dec;29(12):1765-1771. doi: 10.1007/s00192-018-3732-1. Epub 2018 Aug 16. PMID:30116843  
  5. Garretto, A., Thomas-White, K., Wolfe, A.J., Putonti, C. 2018 Detecting viral genomes in the female urinary microbiome.  J Gen Virol. 2018 Aug;99(8):1141-1146. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001097. Epub 2018 Jun 11. PMID:29889019
  6. Kramer, H., Kuffel, G., Thomas-White, K., Wolfe, A.J., Vellanki, K., Leehey, D.J., Bansal, V.K., Brubaker, L., Flanigan, R., Koval, J., Wadhwa, A., Zilliox. M.J. 2018. Diversity of the midstream urine microbiomein adults with chronic kidney disease. Int Urol Nephrol. 2018 Jun;50(6):1123-1130. doi: 10.1007/s11255-018-1860-7. Epub 2018 Apr 12. PMID: 29651696.
  7. Thomas-White, K., Forster, S.C., Kumar, N., Van Kuiken, M., Putonti, C., Stares, M.D., Hilt, E.E., Price, T.K., Wolfe, A.J., Lawley, TD. 2018. Culturing of female bladder bacteria reveals an interconnected urogenital microbiota. Nat Commun. 2018 Apr 19;9(1):1557. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03968-5. PMID:29674608
  8. Miller-Ensminger, T., Garretto A., Brenner, J., Thomas-White, K., Zambom, A., Wolfe, A.J., Putonti, C. 2018. Bacteriophages of the Urinary Microbiome. J Bacteriol. 2018 Mar 12;200(7). pii: e00738-17. doi: 10.1128/JB.00738-17. Print 2018 Apr 1. PMID:29378882  
  9. Price, T.K., Hilt, E.E., Dune, T.J., Mueller, E.R., Wolfe, A.J., Brubaker L. 2018. Urine Trouble: Should we think Differently about UTI? Int Urogyne J. 2018 Feb; 29(2):205-210. doi: 10.1007/s00192-017-3528-8 


  1. Mueller, E.R., Wolfe, A.J., Brubaker, L. 2017. The Female Urinary Microbiota.Current Opin Urology. 2017 Feb 23. doi: 101097/MOU.0000000000000396. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:28234750
  2. Brubaker, L., and Wolfe, A.J. 2017. The Female Urinary Microbiota, Urinary Health and Common Urinary Disorders. Annals of Translational Medicine. 2017 Jan;5(2):34. doi: 10.21037/atm.2016.11.62. PMID:28217699
  3. Brubaker, L., and Wolfe, A.J. The Female Urinary Microbiota/Microbiome: Clinical and Research Implications. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2017 Apr; 8(2): e0015. Published online 2017 Apr 28. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10292 PMCID: PMC5415361
  4. Schwaderer, A.L. and Wolfe, A.J. 2017. The Association Between Bacteria and Urinary Stones.Annals of Translational Medicine. 2017 Jan;5(2):32. doi:. In P 10.21037/atm.2016.11.73. PMID:28217697
  5. Brubaker, L. and Wolfe, A.J. 2017. Microbiota in 2016: Associating Infection and Incontinence with the Female Urinary Microbiota. Nat Rev Urol. 2017 Jan 4. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2016.262. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:2805001 
  6. Jacobs, K.M., Thomas-White, K.J., Hilt, E.E., Wolfe, A.J., Waters, T.P. 2017. Microorganisms Identified in the Maternal Bladder: Discovery of the Maternal Bladder Microbiota. AJP Rep. 2017 Jul;7(3):e188-e196. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1606860. Epub 2017 Sep 29. PMID: 28970961
  7. Dune, T.J., Price, T.K., Hilt, E.E., Thomas-White, K.J., Kliethermes, S., Brincat, C., Brubaker, L., Schreckenberger, P., Wolfe, A.J., Mueller, E.R. 2017. Urinary Symptoms and Their Associations With Urinary Tract Infections in Urogynecologic Patients. Dune TJ, Price TK, Hilt EE, Thomas-White KJ, Kliethermes S, Brincat C, Brubaker L, Schreckenberger P, Wolfe AJ, Mueller ER. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Oct;130(4):718-725. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002239. PMID: 28885414
  8. Putonti,, Kalesinskas, L., Cudone, E., Engelbrecht, K.C., Koenig, D.W., Wolfe, A.J. 2017. Draft Genome Sequences of Two ATCC Staphylococcus aureussubsp. aureus Strains. Genome Announc. 2017 Jul 6;5(27). pii: e00618-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00618-17. PMID: 28684583
  9. Dimitrova, D., Engelbrecht, K.C., Putonti,, Koenig, D.W., Wolfe, A.J. 2017. Draft GenomeSequence of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 10798). Genome Announc. 2017 Jul 6;5(27). pii: e00573-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00573-17. PMID:28684574
  10. Engelbrecht, K.C., Putonti,, Koenig, D.W., Wolfe, A.J. 2017. Draft GenomeSequence of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 29425). Genome Announc. 2017 Jul 6;5(27). pii: e00574-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00574-17. PMID:28684575
  11. Putonti,, Kalesinskas, L., Cudone, E., Engelbrecht, K.C., Koenig, D.W., Wolfe, A.J. 2017. Draft GenomeSequence of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC BAA-2128. Genome Announc. 2017 Jul 6;5(27). pii: e00575-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00575-17. PMID:28684576
  12. Putonti,, Cudone, E., Kalesinskas, L., Engelbrecht, K.C., Koenig, D.W., Wolfe, A.J. 2017. Draft GenomeSequence of Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter) Cohn (ATCC 12698). Genome Announc. 2017 Jul 6;5(27). pii: e00576-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00576-PMID:28684577
  13. Putonti C, Kalesinskas L, Cudone E, Engelbrecht KC, Koenig DW, Wolfe AJ. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus epidermidis (Winslow and Winslow) Evans (ATCC 14990)Genome Announc. 2017;5(27):e00619-17. Published 2017 Jul 6. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00619-17
  14. Putonti C, Kalesinskas L, Cudone E, Engelbrecht KC, Koenig DW, Wolfe AJ. Draft Genome Sequences of Two ATCC Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strains. Genome Announc. 2017;5(27):e00618-17. Published 2017 Jul 6. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00618-17
  15. Putonti C, Cudone E, Kalesinskas L, Engelbrecht KC, Koenig DW, Wolfe AJ. Draft Genome Sequence of Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter) Cohn (ATCC 12698). Genome Announc. 2017;5(27):e00576-17. Published 2017 Jul 6. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00576-17
  16. Putonti C, Kalesinskas L, Cudone E, Engelbrecht KC, Koenig DW, Wolfe AJ. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC BAA-2128. Genome Announc. 2017;5(27):e00575-17. Published 2017 Jul 6. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00575-17


  1. Price, T.K., Shaheen, M., Kalesinskas, L., Malki, K., Hilt, E.E., Putonti, C., Wolfe, A.J. 2016.  Draft Genome Sequence of a Urinary Isolate of Lactobacillus crispatus. Genome Announc. 2016 Dec 1;4(6). pii: e01278-16. doi:10.1128/genomeA.01278-16. PMID:27908986
  2. Hilt, E.E., Price, T.K., Diebel, K., Putonti, C., Wolfe, A.J. 2016.  Draft Genome Sequence for a Urinary Isolate of Nosocomiicoccus ampullae. Genome Announc. 2016 Nov 17;4(6). pii: e01248-16. doi:10.1128/genomeA.01248-16. PMID:27856579
  3. Price, T.K., Mehrtash, A., Kalesinskas, L., Malki, K., Hilt, E.E., Putonti, C., Wolfe, A.J. 2016.  Genome Sequences and Annotation of Two Urinary Isolates of Escherichia coli. Stand Genomic Sci. 2016. 12:11:79. PMID:27777649
  4. Malki, K., Shaprio, J.W., Price, T.K., Hilt, E.E., Thomas-White, K.J., Sircar, T., Rosenfeld, A.B., Kuffel, G., Zilliox, M.J., Wolfe, A.J., Putonti, C. 2016. Genomes of GardnerellaStrains Reveal an Abundance of Prophages within the Bladder Microbiome. PLoS One. 2016 Nov 18; 11(11):e0166757. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166757. PMID: 27861551 
  5. Brubaker, L. and Wolfe, A.J. 2016.  The Urinary Microbiota: A Paradigm Shift for Bladder Disorders? Current Opinions in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2016 Oct;28(5):407-12. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000298. PMID:27379439
  6. Thomas-White, K., Kliethermes, S., Rickey, L., Lukacz, E., Richter, H.E., Moalli, P., Zimmern, P., Norton, P., Kusek, J.W., Wolfe, A.J. and Brubaker, L. for the NIDDK Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network. Evaluation of the Urinary Microbiome of Women with Uncomplicated Stress Urinary Incontinence. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2016 Aug 4. pii: S0002-9378(16)30522-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.07.049. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:27498309 
  7. Losada, L., Amundsen, C.L., Ashton-Miller, J., Chai, T., Close, C., Damaser, M., DiSanto, M., Dmochowski, R., Fraser, M.O., Kielb, S.J., Kuchel, G., Mueller, E.R., Parker-Autry, C., Wolfe, A.J., Mallampalli, M.P. 2016. Expert Panel Recommendations on Lower Urinary Tract Health of Women Across Their Life Span. J Women's Health (Larchmt). 2016 Jun 10. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:27285829
  8. Thomas-White, K., Brady, M., Wolfe, A.J., Mueller, E.R. 2016.  The Bladder is Not Sterile: History and Current Discoveries on the Urinary Microbiome. Bladder Dysfunct. Rep. 2016 Mar; 11(1):18-24. [Epub 2016 Jan 30]. PMID:27182288 
  9. Price, T.K. and Dune, T., Hilt, E.E., Thomas-White, K.J., Kliethermes, S., Brincat, C., Brubaker, L., Wolfe, A.J., Mueller, E.R., Schreckenberger, P.C. 2016.  The Clinical Urine Culture: Enhanced Techniques Improve Detection of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 May; 54(5) doi:10.1128/JCM.00044-16. [Epub 2016 Mar 9]. PMID:26962083
  10. Barr-Baer, E., Saxena,V., Hilt, E.E., Thomas-White, K., Schober, M., Li, B., Becknell, B., Hains, D.S., Wolfe, A.J., and Schwarderer, A.L. 2016. The Interaction between Enterobacteriaceae and Calcium Oxalate DepositsPLoS One. 2015 Oct 8;10(10):e0139575. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139575. eCollection 2015. PMID:26448465
  11. Malki, K., Sible, E., Cooper, A., Garretto, A., Bruder, K., Watkins, S.C., Putonti, 2016. Seven Bacteriophages Isolated from the Female Urinary Microbiota. GenomeAnnounc. 2016 Nov 23;4(6). pii: e01003-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01003-16. PMID:27881533


  1. Thomas-White, K., Hilt, E.E., Fok, C., Pearce, M.M., Mueller, E.R., Kliethermes, S., Jacobs, K., Zilliox, M.J., Brincat, C., Price, T.K., Kuffel, G., Schreckenberger, P.C., Gai, X. Brubaker, L. and Wolfe, A. J. 2015.  Incontinence Medication Response Relates to the Female Urinary Microbiota. IUJO 2015 Sep 30. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:26423260
  2. Pearce, M.M., Zilliox, M.J., Thomas-White, K.J., Richter, H.E., Nager, C.W., Visco, A.G., Nygaard, I.E., Barber, M.D., Schaffer, J., Moalli, P., Sung, V.W., Smith, A.L., Rogers, R., Nolen, T.L., Wallace, D., Meikle, S.F., Gai, X., Wolfe, A.J., AND Brubaker, L; Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. 2015. The Female Urinary Microbiota in Urgency Urinary Incontinence.  Am J Obstet Gynecol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Sep; 213(3):347. PMID:26210757 
  3. Wolfe, A. J. and Brubaker, L. 2015.  “Sterile Urine” and the Presence of Bacteria. Eur Urol. 2015 Aug;68(2):173-4. PMID: 25774008
  4. Brubaker, L. and Wolfe, A. J. 2015. The New World of the Urinary Microbiome in Women.  American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2015 May 21. pii: S0002-9378(15)00508-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.05.032. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 26003055  


  1. Nienhouse, V., Gao, X., Dong, Q., Nelson, D.E., Toh, E., McKinley, K., Schreckenberger, P., Shibata, N., Fok, C.S., Kenton, K., Mueller, E.R., Brubaker, L., Wolfe, A.J., and Radek, K.A. 2014. Interplay Between Bladder Microbiota and Urinary Antimicrobial Peptides: Mechanisms for Human Urinary Tract Infection Risk and Symptom Severity.  PLoS One. 2014 Dec 8;9(12):e114185. PMID:25486068
  2. Le, P., Pearce, M.M., Zhang, S., Campbell, E.M., Fok, C.S., Mueller, E.R., Brincat, C.A., Wolfe, A.J. and Brubaker, L. 2014.  IL22 Regulates Human Urothelial Cell Sensory and Innate Functions through Modulation of the Acetylcholine Response, Immunoregulatory Cytokines and Antimicrobial Peptides: Assessment of an in vitro Model. PLoS One. 2014 Oct 29;9(10):e111375. PMID:25354343. 
  3. Pearce, M.M., Hilt, E.E., Rosenfeld, A.B., Zilliox, M.J., Thomas-White, K., Fok, C., Kliethermes, S., Schreckenberger, P., Brubaker, L., Gai, X. and Wolfe, A.J. 2014.  The Female Urinary Microbiome: A Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence.  mBio. 2014 Jul 8;5(4). pii: e01283-14. PMID:25006228 
  4. Brubaker, L., Nager, C.W., Richter, H.E., Visco, A., Nygaard, I., Barber, M.D., Schaffer, J., Meikle, S., Wallace, D., Shibata, N., Wolfe, A.J. 2014. Urinary Bacteria in Adult Women with Urgency Urinary Incontinence. Int Urogynecol J. 2014 Feb 11. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:24515544
  5. Hilt, E.E., McKinley, K., Pearce, M.M., Rosenfeld, A.B., Zilliox, M.J., Mueller, E.R., Brubaker, L., Gai, X., Wolfe, A.J., and Schreckenberger, P.C. 2014.  Urine is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques to Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder.  J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Mar;52(3):871-6. PMID:24371246 


  1. Fok, C.S., McKinley, K., Mueller, E.R., Kenton, K., Schreckenberger, P., Wolfe, A.J., and Brubaker, L. 2013.  Day of Surgery Urine Cultures Identify Urogynecologic Patients at Increased Risk for Post-operative Urinary Tract Infection.  J Urol. 2013. 189(5):1721-4. PMID:23219547


  1. Wolfe, A.J., Toh, E., Shibata, N., Rong, R., Kenton, K., FitzGerald, M., Mueller, E., Schreckenberger, P., Dong, Q., Nelson, D. and Brubaker, L. 2012.  Evidence of Uncultivated Bacteria in the Adult Female Bladder.  J. Clin Microbiology 2012. 50(4):376-83. PMID:22278835  




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