Charles Bouchard, MD, MA

  • John P. Mulcahy Professor of Ophthalmology
  • Chair, Ophthalmology


Loyola Health Science Library Discover Research Network | ResearchGate | Google Scholar | Castle Connolly



B.A., Biology - Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME


M.A., Physiology - Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA

Medical School:

M.D. - Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL


Transitional Internship - St. Joseph Hospital, Chicago, IL


Resident in Ophthalmology - George Washington University, Washington, DC

Additional Training:

Fellow in Corneal and External Disease - Center for Sight,

Gerogetown University, Washington, DC

Research Focus: Cornea and Ocular Surface Disease

Summary of Research Interests

My area of research focus is the diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of severe ocular surface diseases. This includes dry eye disease (DED), ocular graft vs host disease (oGVHD), mucus membrane pemphigoid (MMP), Steven’s Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), all of which can affect the cornea and ocular surface leading to vision loss.

For the diagnosis of the diseases, we are studying various parameters and biomarkers that impact the homeostasis of the ocular surface.  This includes the ocular surface microbiome, tear film lipid payer, meibomian gland structure and function. We are also examining the relationship between tear film biomarkers (matrix metalloproteinase levels), and changes in the corneal biomechanics (hysteresis), as it relates to OSA.

For the pathophysiology of these OSA related disease, we are studying the role of local and systemic inflammatory biomarkers including tear film and systemic MMP-9 and systemic CRP, Hg A1c, and EPO. For SJS, we have studied the 20-year trends in culprit drugs and the inflammatory biomarkers in the acute phase of the disease. Currently we are collaborating in a study examining the genetic predisposition for SJS.

For the treatment arm, we are studying the role and composition of autologous serum tears, timing and efficacy various ocular surface reconstruction techniques including amniotic membrane, oral (buccal) mucosal grafts, corneal limbal stem cell transplantation, and lamellar allogeneic corneal transplants. We are currently studying eyelid procedures to retard the progression of surface disease in oGVHD  patients. Finally, the Loyola Burn Unit and Ophthalmology department are participating in a multicenter trial comparing the efficacy of systemic cyclosporine and etanercept in the management of acute SJS.



  • Brahmbhatt P, Khanna S, Griffin S, Bouchard CS. A Retrospective Analysis of Tear Film and Blink Parameters in Patients With Ocular Surface Disease. Eye Contact Lens. 2023 May 11. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000994. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37167586.
  • Ueta M, Inoue C, Nakata M, Sotozono C, Kim MK, Wakamatsu T, Jongkhajornpong P, Saeed H, Rauz S, Ma D, Yoon KC, Puansricharern V, Bouchard CS, Ahmad S, Seo KY, Joo CK, Gomes JA, Kinoshita JC, Teramukai S. Severe Ocular Complications of SJS/TEN and associations between pre-onset, acute and chronic factors: a report from the International Ophthalmology Collaborative Group. Frontier Medicine. 2023; 10. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2023.1189140.


  • Phillips EJ, Bouchard CS, Divito SJ. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis-Coordinating Research Priorities to Move the Field Forward. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 March 30. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.0484. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35353140.
  • Abtahi, M., Adams, W., Agarwal, A., Agranat, JS., Ajlan, RS., Akhlaq, A. ... Zhu, I.  “Noninfectious Keratitis”, in Ophthalmology, Yanoff M, Duker J, eds., Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis, MO, 2022.
  • Bouchard CS. Diagnosis and Management of Blepharitis. Review of Ophthalmology. 2022 September.


  • Metcalfe D, Iqbal O, Chodosh J, Bouchard CS, Saeed H. Acute and Chronic Management of Ocular Disease in Stevens Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Frontiers in Medicine. 2021 July; 8:662897. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.662897.
  • Bouchard CS. A Burning Issue. The Ophthalmologist. 2021 June; 20-25.
  • Sadek, Michael; Iqbal, Omer; Siddiqui, Fakiha; Till, Sean; Dharan, Adarsh; Mazariegos, Mellisa; Campbell, Edward; Mudaliar, Kumaran ; Speiser, Jodi ; Bontekoe, Emily; Kouta, Ahmed ; Farooqui, Amber ; Daravath, Bharathi ; Qnebi, Dalia; Sadek, Ramy; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Bouchard, Charles. The Role of IL-13, IL-15 and granulysin in the pathogenesis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021 February; 27:1076029620950831. doi: 10.1177/1076029620950831. PMID: 33560872.
  • Goldstein J, Ben Hadj Tahar M, Iqbal O, Fareed J, Bouchard CS. Stevens Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and It’s Interface with Coagulation Activation. International Journal of Ophthalmology & Eye Science. 2021; 9(4): 472-477.
  • de Bustros P, Baldea A, Sanford A, Joyce C, Adams W, Bouchard CS. Review of Culprit Drugs Associated with Patients Admitted to the Burn Unit with the Diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Syndrome. Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. (In Press 8-18-21).
  • Zhang CY, Farooq AV, Harocopos GJ, Sollenberger EL, Hou JH, Bouchard CS, Shieh C, Tran UL, Lubniewski AJ, Huang AJ, Paley GL. Corneal perforation in ocular graft-versus-host disease. American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. 2021 December; 24.


  • Liu H, Gambino Jr F, Algenio CS, Wu C, Gao YC, Bouchard CS, Qiao L, Bu P, Zhao SZ. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced by Lipid Peroxidation Metabolite 4-Hydroxynonenal in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2020 May; 258: 1717-1725. doi: 10.1007/s00417-020-04647-2. PMID: 32445015.
  • Saeed HN, Bouchard CS, Shieh C, Phillips E, Chodosh J. Highlights from the 2nd Biennial Stevens Johnson Syndrome Symposium 2019: SJS/TEN From Science to Translation. The Ocular Surface. 2020 July; 18(3): 483-486. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2019.11.012. PMCID: PMC7307450.
  • Chang WC, Abe R, Anderson P, Anderson W, Ardern-Jones MR, Meachkofsky TM, Bellon T, Biala AK, Bouchard CS, Cavalleri GL, Chapman N, Chodosh J, Choi HK, Cibotti RR, Divito SJ, Karen D, Dehaeck U, Etminan M, Forbes D, Fuchs E, Goldman JL, Holmes IV J, Hope EA, Hung SL, Hsieh CL, Lovieno A, Jagdeo J, Kim MK, Koelle DM, Lacouture ME, Le Pallec S, McCawley J, McCawley J, Micheletti RG, Mockenhaupt M, Niemeyer K, Norcross MA, Oboh D, Olteanu C, Pasieka HB, Peter J, Pimohamed M, Rieder M, Saeed HN, Shear NH, Shieh C, Straus S, Sukasem C, Sung C, Trubiano JA, Tsou SY, Ueta M,  Volpi S, Wan C, Wang HS, Wang ZQ, Weintraub J, Whale C, Wheatley LM, Whyte-Croasdaile S, Williams KB, Wright G, Yeung SN, Zhou L, Chung WH, Phillips EJ, Carleton BC. SJS/TEN 2019: From science to translation. Journal of Dermatological Science. 2020 April; 98(1): 2-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2020.02.003. PMCID: PMC7261636.
  • Ripa M, Jabbehdari S, Yazdanpanah G, Lukacs E, Karcher B, Iqbal O, Bouchard CS. The Role of Multisystem Disease in Composition of Autologous Serum Tears and ocular surface symptom improvement. The Ocular Surface. 2020 July; 18(3):499-504. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2020.02.011. PMID: 32126284.
  • Sink J, Blatt S, Yoo D, Henry M, Yang S, Vasaiwala R, Ghadiali L, Adams W, Bouchard CS. A Novel Telemedicine Technique for Evaluation of Ocular Exam Findings via Smartphone Images. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2020 June. doi: 10.1177/1357633X20926819.  PMID: 32506998.
  • Zilliox MJ, Gange WS, Kuffel G, Mores CR, Joyce C, De Bustros P, Bouchard CS. Assessing the Ocular Surface Microbiome in Severe Ocular Surface Diseases. The Ocular Surface. 2020 July. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2020.07.007. PMID: 32717380.


  • Thompson JM, Truong AH, Stern HD, Djalilian A, Cortina MS, Tu EY, Johnson P, Verdier DD, Rafo L, Lubeck D, Spektor T, Jorgensen C, Rubenstein JB, Majmudar PA, Talati R, Basti S, Feder R, Sugar A, Mian SI, Balasubramanian N, Sandhu J, Gaynes BI, Bouchard CS. A Multicenter Study Evaluating the Risk Factors and Outcomes of Repeat Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty. Cornea. 2019 February; 38(2): 177-182. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000001817. PMID: 30615600.
  • Cortina MS, Karas FI, Bouchard CS, Aref AA, Djalilian A, Vajaranant TS. Staged Ocular Fornix Reconstruction for Glaucoma Drainage Device under Neoconjunctiva at the time of Boston type 1 Keratoprosthesis Implantation. The Ocular Surface. 2019 April; 17(2): 336-340. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2019.01.010. PMID: 30742989.
  • Gao Y, Li CH, Bu P, Zhang LJ, Bouchard CS. Infectious Interface Keratitis (IIK) Following Lamellar Keratoplasty: A Literature Review. The Ocular Surface. 2019 October; 17(4): 635-643. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2019.08.001. PMID: 31415815.


  • Adam N, Iqbal O, De Alba F, Kuffel G, Zilliox MJ, Adams W, Siddiqui Z, Patel R, O'Malley P, Park P, Stefonowicz C, Bouchard CS. Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Risk of Developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients with Chronic Aspirin Usage. Journal of Ophthalmology Eye Care. 2018 May; 1(1): 101.
  • Liu H, Gambino Jr F, Algenio CS, Bouchard CS, Qiao L, Bu P, Zhao SZ. Zidovudine Protects Hyperosmolarity-Stressed Human Corneal Epithelial Cells via Antioxidant Pathway. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2018 May; 499(2): 177-181. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.03.112. PMID: 29555477.
  • Till SD, Iqbal O, Dharan A, Campbell E, Bu P, Mudaliar K, Speiser J, Bouchard CS. The Roles of IL-33 and TGF-Β1 in the Pathogenesis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/ Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: Potential Biomarkers for Disease Severity. Journal of Ophthalmology Eye Care. 2018 September; 1(1): 105.
  • White KD, Abe R, Ardern-Jones M, Beachkofsky T, Bouchard CS, Carleton B, Chodosh J, Cibotti R, Davis R, Denny JC, Dodiuk-Gad RP, Ergen EN, Goldman JL, Holmes IV JH, Hung SL, Lacouture ME, Lehloenya RJ, Mallal S, Manolio TA, Micheletti RG, Mitchell CM, Mockenhaupt M, Ostrov DA, Pavlos R, Pirmohamed M, Pope E, Redwood A, Rosenbach M, Rosenblum MD, Roujeau, JC, Saavedra AP, Saeed HN, Struewing JP, Sueki H, Sukasem C, Sung C, Trubiano JA, Weintraub J, Wheatley LM, Williams KB, Worley B, Chung WH, Shear NH, Phillips EJ. SJS/TEN 2017: Building Multidisciplinary Networks to Drive Science and Translation. Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology: In Practice. 2018 January; 6(1): 38-69. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.11.023. PMCID: PMC5857362.
  • Sward M, Kirk C, Stefonowicz C, Kumar S, Nasir N, Adams W, Bouchard CS. Lax Eyelid Syndrome (LES), Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), and Ocular Surface Inflammation. The Ocular Surface. 2018 July; 16(3): 331-336. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2018.04.003. PMID: 29729418.
  • Gange WS, Kirchner ID, Thompson JA, Hill J, Ibrahim T, Leonetti JP, Anderson DE, Bouchard CS. Ophthalmic complications following acoustic neuroma resection. Operative 2018 January; 14(1): 58-65. doi: 10.1093/ons/opx071. PMID: 29253289.
  • Adams N, Iqbal O, de Alba F, Kuffel G, Zilliox M, Bouchard C et al. Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Risk of Developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients with Chronic Aspirin Usage. Journal of Ophthalmology and Eye Care 2018 May; 1(1): 1-8.


  • Kohanim S, Palioura S, Saeed HN, Akpek EK, Amescua G, Basu S, Blomquist PH, Bouchard CS, Dart JK, Gai XW, Gomes JAP, Gregory DG, Iyer G, Jacobs DS, Johnson AJ, Kinoshita S, Mantagos IS, Mehta JS, Perez VL, Pflugfelder SC, Sangwan VS, Sippel KC, Sotozono C, Srinivasan B, Tan DTH, Tandon R, Tseng SCG, Ueta M, Chodosh J. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis-A comprehensive review and guide to therapy. I Systemic Disease. The Ocular Surface. 2016 January; 14(1):2-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2015.10.002. PMID: 26549248.
  • Kohanim S, Palioura S, Saeed HN, Akpek EK, Amescua G, Basu S, Blomquist PH, Bouchard CS, Dart JK, Gai XW, Gomes JAP, Gregory DG, Iyer G, Jacobs DS, Johnson AJ, Kinoshita S, Mantagos IS, Mehta JS, Perez VL, Pflugfelder SC, Sangwan VS, Sippel KC, Sotozono C, Srinivasan B, Tan DTH, Tandon R, Tseng SCG, Ueta M, Chodosh J. Acute and Chronic Ophthalmic Involvement in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis - A Comprehensive Review and Guide to Therapy. II. Ophthalmic Disease. The Ocular Surface. 2016 April. 14(2): 168-188. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2016.02.001. PMID: 26882981.
  • Sivaraman KR, Jivrajka RV, Soin K, Bouchard CS, Movahedan A, Shorter E, Jain S, Jacobs DS, Djalilian, AR. Superior Limbic Keratoconjunctivitis-like Inflammation in Patients with Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease. The Ocular 2016 July; 14(3): 393-400. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2016.04.003. PMCID: PMC5554073.


  • Syed D, Iqbal O, Mosier M, Mitchell R, Hoppensteadt D, Bouchard CS, Fareed J, Gamelli R. Elevated endocan levels and its association with clinical severity in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. International Angiology. 2015; 34(5): 483-8. PMID: 25394955.
  • Iqbal O, Bramble W, Ottman A, O’Malley P, Gaynes J, De Alba F, Gaynes BI, Fareed J, Bouchard CS. Aspirin and its Metabolites Enhance the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Cultures – Implications in the Pathophysiology of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. International Journal of Ophthalmology and Eye Science.2015 August. 3(7), 115-120. doi:


  • Vira S, Abugo U, Shih CY, Udell IJ, Sperling B, Hannush SB, Basti S, Bouchard CS. Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty for the treatment of combined Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy and Keratoconus. Cornea. 2014 January; 33(1);1-5. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e3182a7389c. PMID: 24240488.
  • Bu P, Vin AP, Sethupathi P, Ambrecht LA, Zhai YG, Nikolic N, Qiao L, Bouchard CS. Effects of Activated Omental Cells on Rat Limbal Corneal Alkali Injury. Experimental Eye Research. 2014 April; 121:143-146. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2014.02.014. PMID: 24582890.


  • Iqbal O, Fisher G, Vira S, Syed D, Sadeghi N, Freeman D, Campbell E, Sugar J, Feder R, Fareed J, Bouchard CS. Increased expression of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 in keratoconus. Cornea. 2013 May; 32(5):702-707. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e318282987a. PMID: 23449484.
  • Vira S, Shih CY, Ragusa N, Sheyman A, Feder R, Weisenthal R, Rosenwasser GOD, Hannush SB, Udell IR, Bouchard CS. Textural interface opacity after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK): A report of 30 cases and possible etiology. Cornea. 2013 May; 32(5):54-9. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e31826429d5. PMID: 23132442.


  • Banerjee PP, Edward DP, Liang S, Bouchard CS, Bryar PJ, Ahuja R, Dray P, Bailey DP. Concurrent and face validity of a capsulorhexis simulation with respect to human patients. Student Health Technology Inform. 2012; 173: 35-41. doi:10.3233/978-1-61499-022-2-35. PMID: 22356953.
  • Hsu M, Jayarum A, Verner R, Lin A, Bouchard CS. Indications and Outcomes of Amniotic Membrane Transplantation in the Management of Acute Stevens–Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Case–Control Study. Cornea. 2012 December; 31(12): 1394-1402. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e31823d02a8. PMID: 23135531.
  • Saidel MA, Paik JY, Garcia C, Russo P, Cao DC, Bouchard CS. Prevalence of sleep apnea syndrome and high-risk characteristics among keratoconus patients. Cornea. 2012 June; 31(6): 600–603. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e318243e446. PMID: 22495032.